Det er på tide å sette seg grundigere i alt som har blitt skrevet om den finske skolen. I dag kom jeg f.eks. over denne studien som sammenligner hvilken effekt reformer har hatt i ulike land, eller som de sier selv:
The Education Policy Outlook is designed to help education policy makers with reform choices. It addresses the need for improvement in education in a comparative manner, while taking into account the importance of national context. Through a review of different countries’ experiences in implementing education reform, the publication offers directions and strategies to facilitate future changes.
Given different national contexts, individual countries’ reform challenges cannot be simply transposed into a different country or system. Nevertheless, countries face many similar challenges and implement reforms in similar areas. The 2015 edition of the Education Policy Outlook provides a comparative review of policy trends. It explores specific reforms adopted across the OECD over the past seven years to help countries learn from one another and choose the reforms best adapted to their needs and context.
Fascinerende lesning om land som jeg har blitt kjent med, enten fra innsiden og noe ureflektert og naiv (Tyskland), i ulike roller som student, lærer, lærerutdanner og forelder (Norge), som lærerutdanner på praksisoppfølging (Canada) og som forsker (Finland).
Germany has become an above-average performer on PISA with significant improvement in
reading and mathematics over the years, and the impact of socio-economic background on mathematics
performance has decreased to slightly above the OECD average. Germany has a high proportion of children
enrolled in early childhood education, while system-level policies such as early tracking (mostly at the age of 10)
and a relatively high rate of grade repetition may hinder equity. The well-developed dual system, offering students
both vocational and academic education, eases integration into employment. Tertiary graduation rates have
increased recently, but are still below the OECD average. In the 2012 OECD Survey of Adult Skills, adults in
Germany have average skills proficiency levels compared to other participating countries, while younger adults
score higher than other adults in Germany and around the average of young adults in participating countries.
Labour market perspectives are positive compared to most OECD countries: unemployment rates are among the
lowest across OECD and the proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training
(NEET) is below average.
In the context of large between-school variations in performance and different types of
vocational and academic programmes, German students’ views on learning environments are close to the OECD
average. In recent years, school leaders have benefited from increasing autonomy and their use of instructional
leadership approaches is above the OECD average, according to school principals’ reports in PISA 2012.
Teacher training takes between 5.5 and 6.5 years, and the teaching workforce is ageing. Teachers’ salaries are
among the highest across OECD countries. School supervisory authorities perform external school evaluation
which is taken into account for implementation of school improvement measures. National standards for
education and evaluation have been put in place to ensure comparability.
Governance and funding:
Germany has a decentralised education system, with responsibilities shared
between the Federation, the Länder and local authorities, and co-ordination ensured through several bodies.
Schooling decisions are mainly made at the Länder level, while vocational education and training (VET) is a joint
responsibility of the Federation and the Länder, with strong engagement of social partners. Investment in
educational institutions is below the OECD average and has remained stable despite the economic crisis.
Funding is provided mainly by public sources, with large contributions from the private sector in vocational
Key policy issues
Germany faces challenges to support students with disadvantaged and migrant backgrounds and to
continue reducing the impact of socio-economic background on student outcomes while raising performance in
academic and VET provision. New initiatives in the field of teaching and teacher training are advisable to support
school improvement, particularly in view of the high proportion of older teachers and the potential impact on
teacher replacement and teacher training when they retire.
Student performance in PISA is high, with significant improvement since 2006 in science and
less dependence on socio-economic factors than in most OECD countries. Students with immigrant background
face performance challenges, but completion rates for second-generation students are close to average. Adults
have also significantly above-average proficiency levels of literacy skills across participating countries in PIAAC,
with younger adults scoring lower than the average and, unlike the situation in most other countries, lower literacy
skill levels than the adult population as a whole. Norway has a comprehensive education system until the age of
16 and high enrolment in pre-primary education. At upper secondary level, there is strong supply and student
uptake of vocational education and training, but completion rates in general or vocational programmes are low
compared to the OECD average. Tertiary education attainment is higher than the OECD average, resulting in a
highly skilled workforce with a relatively small wage premium due to low income differential in Norway.
With large within-school variation in performance, learning environments in schools are less
positive than the OECD average according to views of students at age 15. Schools leaders focus more on
administrative than pedagogical tasks. Teachers report a high degree of self-efficacy and motivation to teach, but
they receive less feedback and participate in fewer professional development activities than the TALIS average.
Norway has developed a multifaceted system for evaluation and assessment in schools, including quality
assessment, which can be completed and made more coherent to support effective evaluation and assessment
practices. The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), an independent government
agency, provides quality control for tertiary education.
Governance and funding:
Norway's central government sets the goals and framework, and decisionmaking
is highly decentralised, with primary schools run by municipalities and secondary schools run by counties.
Municipalities are also responsible for fulfilling the right to a place in Kindergarten for all children from 1 year of
age. Tertiary institutions are mostly autonomous in their decisions, including those on how they allocate
resources. Norway has generous funding at all levels of the education system: public and private educational
institutions at all levels get most of their funding from public sources, and public education is free, except at preprimary
level where parents must pay some fees.
Key policy issues
Norway faces the challenge of ensuring that students remain in school until the end of upper secondary
education. Efforts have been made to improve learning conditions for students by enhancing pedagogical support
and strengthening assessment, but the system requires policy implementation strategies aligned to its
decentralised governance structure.
Canada continues to be among the top performers in PISA 2012, with fair and inclusive policies
that can contribute to high levels of equity, although performance in mathematics, reading and science has
decreased across PISA cycles. The impact of socio-economic status on student mathematics performance is
lower than the OECD average, and performance of students from an immigrant background is similar to that of
their peers. All provinces and territories provide pre-primary education for 5-year-olds. School is compulsory until
age 16 or 18, depending on the province or territory, and grade repetition is below the OECD average. Attainment
in upper-secondary education is above the OECD average. Due to the structure of education systems in most
Canadian provinces and territories, the proportion of students enrolled in vocational education and training (VET)
programmes at upper secondary level is among the smallest in the OECD. Attainment is higher in technical postsecondary
education, and Canada has the highest attainment rate in tertiary education among OECD countries.
Compared to the other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills, adults (16-65 years-old) performed at
the average in literacy and below the average in numeracy. Unemployment is below the OECD average.
Canada has positive learning environments compared to the OECD average. Schools have
less autonomy than the OECD average in both resource allocation and responsibility for curriculum and
assessment. Teachers have at least a bachelor’s degree and one year of pre-service teacher training, which
includes teaching practicums. Teachers have heavier teaching workloads than in other OECD countries, with
more teaching time at both primary and secondary levels. Evaluation and assessment arrangements are a key
component of every provincial and territorial education system and a key area for collaboration through the
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC).
Education is decentralised in Canada. In each of the 13 jurisdictions, one or two ministries or
departments are responsible for organisation, delivery and assessment of the education system. Canada’s
ministers of education and advanced education collaborate on pan-Canadian educational priorities under CMEC.
Decision-making is entrusted to school boards or school districts, and the level of authority delegated is at the
discretion of the provincial/territorial government. Education is mostly delivered by publicly funded institutions
maintained by the jurisdictions while the federal government provides some funding towards post-secondary
education and provides programmes that support skills development. Education on First Nations reserves is
delivered by First Nations themselves, with funding assistance from the federal government. Investment in
educational institutions is slightly above the OECD average. The share of private expenditure is above the OECD
average and is especially large at the tertiary level.
Key policy issues
Improving the performance of minority-language and Aboriginal students would contribute to better
equity and quality of education in Canada. It would also be important to strengthen the apprenticeship system, by
increasing the attractiveness of apprenticeships and skilled trades’ programmes for youth, improving completion
rates and boosting participation of employers. Canada also faces the dual challenge of having the appropriate
number of well trained teachers where they are most needed, and of providing support and guidance to schools. It
will be important to continue efforts to set priorities that build on and are aligned to the decentralised system
approach and to continue improving access and efficiency of funding in tertiary education.
Finland has been and continues to be one of OECD’s top PISA performers since 2000, with students
performing in the top ranks in reading, science and mathematics between 2000 and 2009, and low impact of students’
background on educational performance. Adults in Finland have also ranked among the top skilled across participating
countries in the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), with younger adults
scoring higher than all adults in Finland and young adults in other countries. Finland has nine years of basic education
(comprehensive school) with a strong focus on equity and on preventing low achievement, and offers flexibility at upper
secondary level between general and vocational education and training options that lead to tertiary education.
Completion rates in upper secondary and tertiary are higher than the OECD average. In the context of the economic
crisis, unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds increased but remained below the OECD average.
Finnish society and its education system place great importance on their schools and day-care
facilities and trust the proficiency of their school leaders, teachers and educational staff, with no national standardised
tests or high-stakes evaluation. Teaching is a highly appreciated profession, and teachers are required to have a
master's degree that includes research and practice-based studies. Compared to workers with a tertiary education,
their salary is slightly above the OECD average. They have pedagogical autonomy to teach and assess students'
learning, which requires capacity and professional development for both teaching and evaluation responsibilities.
Governance and funding:
In a decentralised approach, the Finnish Government defines and sets educational
priorities, while schools and day-care centres are principally maintained and supported by municipalities (local
authorities), which have significant responsibility for organisation of education, funding, curriculum and hiring
personnel. A national Education and Research Development Plan outlines education policy priorities every four years,
and the government and the Ministry of Education and Culture prepare and implement education policy. Social and
political agreement on the value of education has provided stability on the structure and key features of the education
Finland's high education performance is supported by system-level policies that encourage quality and equity.
These can be continued and complemented with further focus on reducing recent inequities in specific groups: large
performance gaps are seen between boys and girls and between native students and students with immigrant
background. In addition, demographic changes imply a smaller proportion of younger people in Finland, and there
have been some mismatches between supply and demand of study places and labour market needs.
Finland’s preventive approach to school failure has been successful. It combines early recognition by teachers of
low performance with holistic support that involves both school and social welfare staff. Teacher quality has also been
developed through strong initial teacher education to a master's level with practical experience.
Og vi er på vei hjem. God tid i både Stockholm og Oslo tillater litt blogging. Forskerhulen de siste tre månedene forlates, og de neste ukene skal intervjuer transkriberes og observasjonslogger tolkes.
Ekstra gledelig var det at SKAM-artikkelen vår kom på luften i forrige uke - nå kan jeg konsentrere meg om å skrive paper til den 15. nordiske lærerutdanningskonferansen i mai. Både flerspråklighet og forholdet mellom teori og praksis er tiltalende temaer.
Men akkurat nå gjelder det å stoppe litt opp, se tilbake på ukene i Helsinki og lage seg huskeknagger, memoknotter og sensoriske erindringsblokker som helt sikkert kun på utilstrekkelig vis kan nærme seg det som "virkelig" hendte. Noe som kommer til å henge høyt på huskeveggen min, er elevene og lærerne på Viikin normaalikoulu. Stemningen på skolen var kjent, kanskje litt for velkjent i en nordisk skolekontekst, men samtidig var den veldig forskjellig - ikke minst på grunn av språket. Selv om 4. klassinger er vennlige når d…
Nå er jeg her - i min siste uke i Helsinki - etter et tre-måneders opphold som i september virket som et uoverskuelig antall dager, uker som jeg ikke visste hvordan jeg skulle strukturere. Og nå er jeg på slutten av oppholdet, og med refleksjonens evnes til å vende blikket tilbake på det som har passert, kan jeg ikke annet enn å si meg meget fornøyd med oppholdet. Det har vært travle dager med språkkurs, konversasjonsmøter på ulike bibliotek og selvsagt skolebesøk, med observasjon og sågar undervisning; det siste riktignok mest i tyskklassene. Finsk lærer man seg ikke i en fei, og etter språkkurset har jeg følelsen av at det finnes et uoverskuelig antall med verb som krever ulike kasus i bestemte situasjoner, som jeg aldri kommer til beherske. Men så er det også en god stund siden jeg har sittet på skolebenken for å lære meg et helt nytt språk.
Bind 3 og 4 er i hvert fall kjøpt, og jeg skal pløye meg gjennom dem på egenhånd - det er i hvert fall planen;)
Ellers skal jeg lese til eksa…
Also lautet ein Beschluß: Daß der Mensch was lernen muß. Nicht allein das Abc Bringt den Menschen in die Höh, Nicht allein im Schreiben, Lesen Übt sich ein vernünftig Wesen; Nicht allein in Rechnungssachen Soll der Mensch sich Mühe machen; Sondern auch der Weisheit Lehren Muß man mit Vergnügen hören.
Ala Auftakt mag das ja noch gehen heutzutage, aber ich bin mal gespannt, was die neuen Referendare dazu am Dienstag sagen. Ich werde mir noch etwas Weises überlegen und nehme gerne gute Tips entgegen. Das Kommentarfelt soll jetzt auch für jedermann geöffnet sein. Jedermann? Na, wer will, dann eben:)